The Taxonomicon
Home
Site map | Contact
Under construction
Node-based clade: Class Aves Linnaeus, 1758 - birds (bird)
Classification by:

Natura - nature
Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1748: 210; Count: 14k;226p;874c;1605o;9906f;114,342g;258,955s;29,252ss;2100v;35,690;112e; ‡2o;20f;118g;518s;110ss;1v;7; †4p;75c;550o;3448f;17,150g;6300s;207ss;2v;392;14e
   actualia - actual entities
  Ref: A. Voltolini, 2006: 44 (note 19) [assumed position]; Count: 14k;226p;874c;1605o;9906f;114,342g;258,954s;29,252ss;2100v;35,690;112e; ‡2o;20f;118g;518s;110ss;1v;7; †4p;75c;550o;3448f;17,150g;6300s;207ss;2v;392;14e
     Mundus Plinius - physical world
    Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1758: 5 [indirect position]; 24 Apr 2014; Count: 14k;226p;874c;1605o;9906f;114,342g;258,954s;29,252ss;2100v;35,688;112e; ‡2o;20f;118g;518s;110ss;1v;7; †4p;75c;550o;3448f;17,150g;6300s;207ss;2v;392;14e
       naturalia - natural bodies
      Ref: C. Linnaeus, 1758: 6 [implicit position]; Count: 8k;226p;874c;1605o;9830f;114,332g;258,530s;29,252ss;2069v;9; ‡2o;20f;118g;518s;110ss;1v; †4p;75c;550o;3448f;17,150g;6300s;207ss;2v
         [crown] Clade Biota Wagner 2004 [Wiemann, de Queiroz, Rowe, Planavsky, Anderson, Gogarten, Turner & Gauthier 2020]
        Ref: J. Wiemann et al., 2020 [validation] [inferred position]; Count: 6k;226p;399c;1597o;9830f;114,289g;255,303s;29,250ss;2041v;9; ‡2o;20f;118g;518s;110ss;1v; †4p;75c;549o;3448f;17,141g;6260s;207ss;2v
           Clade "neomura" Cavalier-Smith 1987
          Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2002b: 297 [inferred position]; Count: 6k;81p;328c;1441o;9332f;110,744g;238,979s;28,849ss;2023v;2; ‡2o;20f;118g;518s;110ss;1v; †4p;75c;549o;3447f;17,134g;6251s;207ss;2v
             Domain Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 - eukaryotes
            Ref: P.M. Kirk et al., 2008: 248 [indirect position]; 19 Sep 2015; Count: 6k;76p;318c;1422o;9300f;110,617g;238,533s;28,849ss;2023v;2; ‡2o;20f;118g;518s;110ss;1v; †4p;75c;549o;3447f;17,134g;6251s;207ss;2v
               Clade neokaryotes Cavalier-Smith 1993 - mitochondrial eukaryotes
              Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013(2012): 116 [inferred position]; 18 Sep 2015; Count: 5k;75p;314c;1414o;9294f;110,399g;238,360s;28,842ss;2023v;2; ‡2o;20f;118g;518s;110ss;1v; †4p;75c;549o;3444f;17,040g;6165s;201ss;2v
                 Clade neozoa Cavalier-Smith 1993
                Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013(2012): fig. 2; Count: 5k;74p;308c;1406o;9283f;110,362g;238,305s;28,842ss;2023v;2; ‡2o;20f;118g;518s;110ss;1v; †4p;75c;549o;3444f;17,040g;6165s;201ss;2v
                   Clade scotokaryotes Cavalier-Smith 2000
                  Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith et al., 2015: 357 [emended diagnosis] [indirect position]; 18 Sep 2015; Count: 3k;56p;192c;872o;7292f;88,644g;217,163s;28,335ss;511v;1; ‡2o;20f;117g;514s;110ss;1v; †4p;70c;491o;3021f;13,264g;5068s;107ss;2v
                     Clade podiates Cavalier-Smith 2012
                    Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith et al., 2015: 357 [new position]; Count: [p] 3k;54p;186c;858o;7256f;88,529g;217,004s;28,335ss;511v;1; ‡2o;20f;117g;514s;110ss;1v; †4p;70c;491o;3021f;13,264g;5068s;107ss;2v
                       [crown] Clade Amorphea Adl et al. 2012
                      Ref: S.M. Adl et al., 2012: table 1 (p. 430) [new taxon] [indirect position]; 19 Sep 2015; Count: [p] 3k;54p;183c;855o;7251f;88,520g;216,991s;28,335ss;511v;1; ‡2o;20f;117g;514s;110ss;1v; †4p;70c;491o;3021f;13,264g;5068s;107ss;2v
                         [crown] Clade Opisthokonta Cavalier-Smith 1987
                        Ref: E.J. van Nieukerken, 2010: 98 [indirect position]; Count: [p] 3k;52p;174c;824o;7176f;88,275g;216,530s;28,333ss;507v;1; ‡2o;20f;117g;514s;110ss;1v; †4p;70c;491o;3021f;13,264g;5067s;107ss;2v
                           Superkingdom Holozoa Lang, O'Kelly, Nerad, Gray & Burger, 2002
                          Ref: L. Tedersoo et al., 2018: 154 [implicit position]; Count: [p] 1k;33p;96c;582o;6241f;78,960g;214,166s;28,325ss;483v;1; ‡2o;20f;117g;514s;110ss;1v; †4p;69c;490o;3020f;12,778g;5058s;107ss;2v
                             Clade filozoa Shalchian-Tabrizi, Minge, Espelund, Orr, Ruden, Jakobsen & Cavalier-Smith 2008
                            Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013(2012): 156 [inferred position]; 19 Jan 2016; Count: [p] 1k;33p;95c;580o;6234f;78,940g;214,144s;28,325ss;483v;1; ‡2o;20f;117g;514s;110ss;1v; †4p;69c;490o;3020f;12,778g;5058s;107ss;2v
                               Kingdom Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
                              Ref: T. Cavalier-Smith, 2013(2012): 156 [implicit position]; Count: [p] 33p;92c;576o;6228f;78,884g;214,076s;28,325ss;482v;1; ‡2o;20f;117g;514s;110ss;1v; †4p;69c;490o;3020f;12,778g;5058s;107ss;2v
                                 Clade Planulozoa Wallberg, Thollesson, Farris & Jondelius 2004
                                Ref: G. Giribet & G.D. Edgecombe, 2019: 168 (fig. 1a) [inferred position]; Giribet & Edgecombe, 2019: fig. 1a; Count: 31p;86c;541o;6063f;78,121g;213,526s;28,306ss;471v;1; ‡2o;20f;117g;514s;110ss;1v; †2p;63c;461o;2723f;11,278g;4804s;107ss;2v
                                   Subkingdom Bilateria Hatschek, 1888 - bilaterians
                                  Ref: M.A. Ruggiero et al., 2015b: table 2 (p. 36) [indirect position]; Giribet & Edgecombe, 2019: fig. 1a; Count: 29p;80c;518o;5826f;77,229g;212,789s;28,301ss;463v;1; ‡2o;20f;117g;514s;110ss;1v; †2p;58c;447o;2710f;11,154g;4708s;107ss;2v
                                     Clade Nephrozoa Jondelius, Ruiz-Trillo, Baguñà & Riutort 2002
                                    Ref: G. Giribet & G.D. Edgecombe, 2019: 168 (fig. 1b) [implicit position]; Giribet & Edgecombe, 2019: fig. 1b; Count: 28p;78c;516o;5802f;77,143g;212,767s;28,301ss;463v;1; ‡2o;20f;117g;514s;110ss;1v; †1p;55c;447o;2706f;11,134g;4686s;107ss;2v
                                       Infrakingdom Deuterostomia Grobben, 1908
                                      Ref: M.A. Ruggiero et al., 2015b: table 2 (p. 48) [indirect position]; Giribet & Edgecombe, 2019: fig. 1b; Count: [p] 3p;18c;190o;1248f;10,494g;62,113s;12,707ss;308v;1; ‡2o;19f;115g;413s;102ss;1v; †1p;28c;267o;1167f;7589g;3047s;75ss;1v
                                         Phylum Chordata Bateson, 1885 - chordates
                                        Ref: M.A. Ruggiero et al., 2015b: table 2 (p. 48); Giribet & Edgecombe, 2019: fig. 1b; Count: 9c;149o;1087f;9946g;61,722s;12,699ss;306v;1; ‡2o;19f;115g;413s;102ss;1v; †7c;215o;1146f;7448g;2995s;70ss;1v
                                           Subphylum Vertebrata Cuvier, 1812 - vertebrates
                                          Ref: M.A. Ruggiero et al., 2015b: table 2 (p. 48); Count: [fc] 6c;142o;1063f;9855g;61,522s;12,695ss;306v;1; ‡2o;19f;115g;413s;102ss;1v; †7c;215o;1146f;7443g;2994s;70ss;1v
                                             Myopterygii - myopterygians
                                            Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 30 [implicit position]; Count: 5c;140o;1059f;9840g;61,403s;12,695ss;306v;1; ‡2o;19f;115g;413s;102ss;1v; †5c;200o;1130f;7122g;2982s;68ss;1v
                                               Superclass Gnathostomata Gegenbaur, 1874 - jawed vertebrates
                                              Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 16; Count: 5c;140o;1059f;9840g;61,403s;12,695ss;306v;1; ‡2o;19f;115g;413s;102ss;1v; †2c;191o;1102f;7043g;2944s;68ss;1v
                                                 Grade Teleostomi Bonaparte, 1836
                                                Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 82; Count: 4c;126o;1005f;9645g;60,243s;12,693ss;306v;1; ‡2o;19f;115g;413s;102ss;1v; †1c;156o;998f;6749g;2878s;68ss;1v
                                                   Euteleostomi - bony vertebrates
                                                  Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 86; Count: 4c;126o;1005f;9645g;60,243s;12,693ss;306v;1; ‡2o;19f;115g;413s;102ss;1v; †153o;988f;6691g;2868s;68ss;1v
                                                     [Clade] Sarcopterygii Romer, 1955
                                                    Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 17 [inferred rank]; Count: 3c;67o;530f;5077g;31,847s;12,155ss;303v;1; ‡2o;19f;112g;392s;98ss;1v; †120o;839f;6225g;2708s;68ss;1v
                                                       [crown] Rhipidistia Cope, 1887
                                                      Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 462 [implicit position]; Count: 3c;66o;530f;5077g;31,847s;12,155ss;303v;1; ‡2o;19f;112g;392s;98ss;1v; †119o;838f;6217g;2707s;68ss;1v
                                                         Clade Tetrapodomorpha Ahlberg, 1991
                                                        Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 465; Count: 3c;65o;527f;5074g;31,841s;12,150ss;303v;1; ‡2o;19f;112g;392s;98ss;1v; †118o;826f;6206g;2705s;68ss;1v
                                                           Clade Osteolepidimorpha
                                                          Ref: J.S. Nelson, 2006: 466; Count: 3c;65o;527f;5074g;31,841s;12,150ss;303v;1; ‡2o;19f;112g;392s;98ss;1v; †117o;825f;6199g;2701s;68ss;1v
                                                             Clade Tetrapoda Goodrich, 1930
                                                            Ref: D.R. Frost et al., 2006: fig. 51 [out of scope] [indirect position]; Count: [oc] 3c;65o;527f;5074g;31,841s;12,150ss;303v;1; ‡2o;19f;112g;392s;98ss;1v; †115o;819f;6191g;2693s;68ss;1v
                                                               [crown] [Clade] Neotetrapoda
                                                              Ref: M.J. Benton, 2015: 436 [inferred rank] [implicit position]; Count: 3c;65o;527f;5074g;31,841s;12,150ss;303v;1; ‡2o;19f;112g;392s;98ss;1v; †115o;810f;6174g;2674s;68ss;1v
                                                                 [Clade] Reptiliomorpha Säve-Söderbergh, 1934
                                                                Ref: M.J. Benton, 2015: 437 [inferred rank] [implicit position]; Count: 2c;62o;466f;4549g;25,180s;12,080ss;303v;1; ‡2o;19f;112g;388s;98ss;1v; †113o;768f;6124g;2659s;68ss;1v
                                                                   Batrachosauria
                                                                  Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: box 4.5 [implicit position]; Count: [f] 2c;62o;466f;4549g;25,180s;12,080ss;303v;1; ‡2o;19f;112g;388s;98ss;1v; †111o;755f;6117g;2657s;68ss;1v
                                                                     [Clade] Amniota Haeckel, 1866 - amniotes
                                                                    Ref: M.J. Benton, 2015: 437 [inferred rank]; Count: [f] 2c;62o;466f;4549g;25,180s;12,080ss;303v;1; ‡2o;19f;112g;388s;98ss;1v; †105o;730f;6087g;2651s;68ss;1v
                                                                       Class Reptilia Linnaeus, 1758 - reptiles
                                                                      Ref: M.J. Benton, 2015: 438 [implicit position]; Count: 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;7724ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;65ss; †51o;319f;1555g;850s;3ss
                                                                         Eureptilia Olson, 1947
                                                                        Ref: M.J. Benton, 2015: 438 [inferred rank]; Count: 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;7724ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;65ss; †48o;305f;1474g;825s;3ss
                                                                           Romeriida Gauthier, Kluge & Rowe, 1988
                                                                          Ref: R.V. Hill, 2005: fig. 5; Count: [s] 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;7724ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;65ss; †48o;304f;1472g;824s;3ss
                                                                             Clade Diapsida Osborn 1903 [Laurin 1991]
                                                                            Ref: R.V. Hill, 2005: fig. 5; Count: [s] 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;7724ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;65ss; †48o;303f;1470g;824s;3ss
                                                                               Clade Neodiapsida Benton 1985 [Laurin 1991] {Reisz, Modesto & Scott 2011}
                                                                              Ref: R.R. Reisz et al., 2011: 3733 [emended diagnosis]; Count: 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;7724ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;65ss; †46o;300f;1467g;823s;3ss
                                                                                 [crown] Clade Sauria McCartney 1802 [Gauthier, Kluge & Rowe 1988]
                                                                                Ref: R.R. Reisz et al., 2011: fig. 4; Count: 35o;301f;3344g;20,060s;7724ss;1v;1; ‡2o;7f;60g;278s;65ss; †45o;297f;1459g;819s;3ss
                                                                                   Clade Archosauromorpha Huene 1946 [Gauthier, Kluge & Rowe 1988] {Laurin 1991}
                                                                                  Ref: R.R. Reisz et al., 2011: fig. 4; Count: 32o;205f;2160g;9642s;7166ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;58g;262s;62ss; †40o;223f;1312g;736s;3ss
                                                                                     Clade Archosauria Cope 1869 [Gauthier & Padian 1985]
                                                                                    Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: figs. 1.2, 1.8A [Benton, 2015: box 6.1]; Count: 32o;205f;2160g;9642s;7166ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;58g;262s;62ss; †36o;216f;1295g;724s;3ss
                                                                                       Avesuchia Benton, 1999
                                                                                      Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A [out of scope]; Count: [s] 32o;205f;2160g;9642s;7166ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;58g;262s;62ss; †35o;212f;1285g;718s;3ss
                                                                                         Clade Avemetatarsalia Benton 1999
                                                                                        Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A [out of scope]; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †31o;181f;1131g;600s;3ss
                                                                                           Clade Ornithodira Gauthier 1986
                                                                                          Ref: M.J. Benton, 2004: fig. 1.8A [Benton, 2015: 440] [out of scope]; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †31o;180f;1130g;599s;3ss
                                                                                             Clade Dinosauromorpha Benton 1985
                                                                                            Ref: C.F. Kammerer et al., 2012(2011): 278; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †30o;159f;1067g;576s;3ss
                                                                                               Clade Dinosauriformes Novas 1992
                                                                                              Ref: C.F. Kammerer et al., 2012(2011): 278; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †30o;158f;1065g;573s;3ss
                                                                                                 Clade Dinosauria Owen 1841
                                                                                                Ref: C.F. Kammerer et al., 2012(2011): 282 (fig. 4); Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †30o;157f;1057g;565s;3ss
                                                                                                   Clade Saurischia Seeley 1887 [Gauthier 1986]
                                                                                                  Ref: V. Díez Díaz et al., 2018: 433; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †29o;137f;867g;490s;3ss
                                                                                                     Clade Theropoda Marsh 1881 [Gauthier 1986]
                                                                                                    Ref: P.C. Sereno, 1998: table 4 (p. 64); Count: 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †28o;120f;620g;333s;3ss
                                                                                                       Clade Neotheropoda Bakker 1986 [Sereno 1998]
                                                                                                      Ref: R.N. Martínez & C. Apaldetti, 2017: 490; Count: 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †28o;119f;611g;327s;3ss
                                                                                                         Clade Averostra Paul 2002
                                                                                                        Ref: R.N. Martínez & C. Apaldetti, 2017: 502 (fig. 11); Count: 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †28o;117f;593g;322s;3ss
                                                                                                           Clade Tetanurae Gauthier 1986
                                                                                                          Ref: C. Hendrickx et al., 2015: 3 (fig. 1); Count: 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †28o;114f;564g;314s;3ss
                                                                                                             Clade Orionides Carrano, Benson & Sampson 2012
                                                                                                            Ref: C. Hendrickx et al., 2015: 11 (fig. 4); Count: 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †28o;114f;555g;303s;3ss
                                                                                                               Clade Avetheropoda Paul 1988 [Padian et al. 1999]
                                                                                                              Ref: C. Hendrickx et al., 2015: 11 (fig. 4); Count: 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †28o;111f;534g;284s;3ss
                                                                                                                 Clade Coelurosauria Huene 1914 [Gauthier 1986]
                                                                                                                Ref: C. Hendrickx et al., 2015: 3 (fig. 1); Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †28o;107f;505g;256s;3ss
                                                                                                                   Clade Tyrannoraptora Sereno 1999, nom. cl. inval.
                                                                                                                  Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: fig. S.2; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †28o;107f;498g;250s;3ss
                                                                                                                     Clade Maniraptoriformes Holtz 1995 [Holtz 1996]
                                                                                                                    Ref: T.R. Holtz Jr. & H. Osmólska, 2004: fig. S.2; Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †28o;104f;469g;238s;3ss
                                                                                                                       Clade Maniraptora Gauthier 1986
                                                                                                                      Ref: C. Hendrickx et al., 2015: 13 (fig. 5); Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †28o;102f;457g;226s;3ss
                                                                                                                         Clade Pennaraptora Foth et al. 2014
                                                                                                                        Ref: C. Hendrickx et al., 2015: 13 (fig. 5); Count: 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †28o;98f;427g;203s;3ss
                                                                                                                           Clade Paraves Sereno 1997 [Sereno 1998]
                                                                                                                          Ref: C. Hendrickx et al., 2015: 13 (fig. 5); Count: 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †27o;93f;400g;183s;3ss
                                                                                                                             Clade Avialae Gauthier 1986
                                                                                                                            Ref: C. Hendrickx et al., 2015: 3 (fig. 1); Count: [s] 31o;202f;2151g;9617s;7150ss;1v; ‡2o;7f;57g;261s;62ss; †27o;91f;359g;173s;3ss
                                                                                                                               [Class Aves Linnaeus, 1758 - birds] see Subclass Aves Linnaeus, 1758
                                                                                                                              Ref: J.K. O'Connor et al., 2010: 312 [indirect position]; Count: †4o;4f
                                                                                                                                 [Order †Caenagnathiformes Sternberg, 1940]
                                                                                                                                Ref: 2003; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 [Order Carinatæ Merrem, 1813]
                                                                                                                                Ref: E.R. Lankester, 1877: 453; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 [Order †"Ichthornithiformes"] see Order Ichthyornithiformes Marsh, 1873
                                                                                                                                Ref: J.J. Sepkoski Jr., 2002: 320; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 [Genus Leptopus Fraser, 1845, nom. illeg.]
                                                                                                                                Ref: S.A. Neave, [2005]: 18 May 2008 [nominal taxon] [implicit position]; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 Order †Limnornithiformes Kessler & Jurcsák, 1984, nom. illeg.
                                                                                                                                Ref: 2003; Count: †2f
                                                                                                                                 Order †Praeornithiformes Rautian, 1978
                                                                                                                                Ref: 2003; Count: †1f
                                                                                                                                 Family †Ptenopodiscidae
                                                                                                                                Ref: 2003; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 [Order Ratitæ (Merrem, 1813)]
                                                                                                                                Ref: E.R. Lankester, 1877: 453; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 [Genus †Scanirnis]
                                                                                                                                Ref: J.J. Sepkoski Jr., 2002 [rough position]; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 Order †Sinosauropterygiformes Ji & Ji, 1996
                                                                                                                                Ref: 2003; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 Order †Yandangithformes
                                                                                                                                Ref: 2003; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 0.1.0 [Genus †Rahona Forster, Sampson, Chiappe & Krause, 1998, nom. illeg.] see Genus Rahonavis Forster, Sampson, Chiappe & Krause, 1998
                                                                                                                                Ref: 1999 [indirect position]; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 1.0 [Subclass †Archaeornithes Gadow, 1893] see Superorder Archaeornithes Gadow, 1893
                                                                                                                                Ref: R.L. Carroll, 1988: 624; Count: †6o;2f
                                                                                                                                 1.0 [Subclass †"Archeornithes"] see Subclass Archaeornithes Gadow, 1893
                                                                                                                                Ref: 1990; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 1.0 [Subclass †Sauriurae Haeckel, 1866] see Subclass Archaeornithes Gadow, 1893
                                                                                                                                Ref: E.N. Kurochkin, 1996: 22; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 1.0 [Order Saururæ]
                                                                                                                                Ref: E.R. Lankester, 1877: 453; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 2.2.2.0 [Subclass Pygostylia Chiappe, 2002] see Clade Pygostylia Chatterjee 1997 [Chiappe 2001]
                                                                                                                                Ref: M.J. Benton, 2005: 398; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Accipitres Linnaeus, 1758] see Suborder Accipitres (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
                                                                                                                                Ref: C. a Linné, 1766: 121; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Anseres Linnaeus, 1758] see Suborder Anseres Linnaeus, 1758
                                                                                                                                Ref: C. a Linné, 1766: 194; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Gallinae Linnaeus, 1758]
                                                                                                                                Ref: C. a Linné, 1766: 267; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Grallae Linnaeus, 1758]
                                                                                                                                Ref: C. a Linné, 1766: 230; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 2.2.2.2.2.2 [Subclass Ornithurae Haeckel, 1866] see Clade Ornithurae Haeckel 1866 [Gauthier 1986] {Chiappe 1991}
                                                                                                                                Ref: Z. Zhou & F. Zhang, 2006: 79; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Passeres Linnaeus, 1758] see Suborder Passeres (C. Linnaeus, 1758) C. Linnaeus, 1766
                                                                                                                                Ref: C. a Linné, 1766: 279; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 2.2.2.2.2.2 [Order Picae Linnaeus, 1758] see Parvclass Picae (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
                                                                                                                                Ref: C. a Linné, 1766: 139; Count: -
                                                                                                                                 2.2.2.2.2.2.0 [Subclass †Odontoholcae (Marsh, 1875) Stejneger, 1885] see Cohort Ornithurae Haeckel, 1866
                                                                                                                                Ref: P. Brodkorb, 1963: 191; Count: -

©2004-2022 Universal Taxonomic Services
Last updated: 4 Aug 2022