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Person: T. Cavalier-Smith
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T. Cavalier-Smith (Thomas ("Tom"))
Standard form: Caval.-Sm.
Born: 1942
Died: 2021


Wife: E. (Ema) Chao


Cavalier-Smith, T., 1978. The evolutionary origin and phylogeny of microtubules, mitotic spindles and eukaryote flagella. BioSystems 10: 93-114.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1981. Eukaryotic kingdoms, seven or nine? BioSystems 14 (3-4): 461-481.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1987b. The Origin of Eukaryote and Archaebacterial Cells. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 503 (1), Jul 1987: 17-54.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1989. Kingdoms, systems of. McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology 1989: 175-179.
Cavalier-Smith, T., [1991(ined.?)]. Kingdom Protozoa and its 16 phyla. J. Protozool..
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1991. Archamoebae: the ancestral eukaryotes? Biosystems 25 (1-2): 25-38.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1993a. The Protozoan Phylum Opalozoa. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 40 (5), Sep-Oct 1993: 609-615.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1993b. Kingdom Protozoa and Its 18 Phyla. Microbiological Reviews 57 (4), Dec 1993: 953-994.
Cavalier-Smith, T., Allsopp, M.T.E.P. & Chao, E.E., 1994. Chimeric conundra: Are nucleomorphs and chromists monophyletic or polyphyletic? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, Nov 1994: 11368-11372.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1995. Zooflagellate Phylogeny and Classification. Tsitol. 37 (11): 1010-1029.
Cavalier-Smith, T., Chao, E.E. & Allsopp, M.T.E.P., 1995. Ribosomal RNA Evidence for Chloroplast Loss within Heterokonta. Arch. Protistenk. 145 (3-4), Apr 1995: 209-220.
Cavalier-Smith, T., Allsopp, M.T.E.P., Häuber, M.M., Gothe, G., Chao, E.E., Couch, J.A. & Maier, U.-G., 1996. Chromobiote phylogeny: the enigmatic alga Reticulosphaera japonensis is an aberrant haptophyte, not a heterokont. Eur. J. Phycol. 31: 255-263.
Cavalier-Smith, T., Chao, E.E., Thompson, C.E. & Hourihane, S.L., 1996. Oikomonas, a Distinctive Zooflagellate Related to Chrysomonads. Arch. Protistenk. 146 (3-4), Feb 1996: 273-279.
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Allsopp, M.T.E.P., 1996. Corallochytrium, an Enigmatic Non-flagellate Protozoan Related to Choanoflagellates. Europ. J. Protistol. 32, 30 Aug 1996: 306-310.
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E.E., 1996. 18S rRNA sequence of Heterosigma carterae (Raphidophyceae), and the phylogeny of heterokont algae (Ochrophyta). Phycologia 35 (6), Nov 1996: 500-510.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1997b. Sagenista and Bigyra, two phyla of heterotrophic heterokont chromists. Arch. Protistenk. 148 (3), Oct 1997: 253-267.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1997a. Amoeboflagellates and Mitochondrial Cristae in Eukaryote Evolution: Megasystematics of the New Protozoan Subkingdoms Eozoa and Neozoa. Arch. Protistenk. 147 (3-4), Apr 1997: 237-258.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biol. Rev. 73: 203-266.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1999. Zooflagellate Phylogeny and the Systematics of Protozoa. Biol. Bull. 196, Jun 1999: 393-396.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1999. Principles of Protein and Lipid Targeting in Secondary Symbiogenesis: Euglenoid, Dinoflagellate, and Sporozoan Plastid Origins and the Eukaryote Family Tree. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 46 (4), Jul-Aug 1999: 347-366.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2002b. The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52: 297-354.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2002a. The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52, 14 Jan 2002: 7-76.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2003. The excavate protozoan phyla Metamonada Grassé emend. (Anaeromonadea, Parabasalia, Carpediemonas, Eopharyngia) and Loukozoa emend. (Jakobea, Malawimonas: their evolutionary affinities and new higher taxa. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53: 1741-1758.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2003. Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa. European Journal of Protistology 39 (4): 338-348.
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E.E.-Y., 2003. Phylogeny of Choanozoa, Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early Eukaryote Megaevolution. J. Mol. Evol. 56 (5): 540-563.
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E.E.-Y., 2003. Phylogeny and classification of phylum Cercozoa (Protozoa). Protist 154 (3-4), Oct 2003: 341-358.
Bass, D. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2004. Phylum-specific environmental DNA analysis reveals remarkably high global biodiversity of Cercozoa (Protozoa). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54: 2393-2404.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2004. Only six kingdoms of life. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 271: 1251-1262.
Cavalier-Smith, T., Chao, E.E.-Y. & Oates, B., 2004. Molecular phylogeny of Amoebozoa and the evolutionary significance of the unikont Phalansterium. Europ. J. Protistol. 40: 21-48.
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E.E., 2004. Protalveolate phylogeny and systematics and the origins of Sporozoa and dinoflagellates (phylum Myzozoa nom. nov.). Europ. J. Protistol. 40 (3), 6 Sep 2004: 185-212.
Kudryavtsev, A., Bernhard, D., Schlegel, M., Chao, E.E.-Y. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2005. 18S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences of Cochliopodium (Himatismenida) and the Phylogeny of Amoebozoa. Protist 156 (2), Aug 2005: 215-224.
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E.E-Y., 2006. Phylogeny and Megasystematics of Phagotrophic Heterokonts (Kingdom Chromista). J. Mol. Evol. 62: 388-420.
Karpov, S.A., Bass, D., Mylnikov, A.P. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2006. Molecular phylogeny of Cercomonadidae and kinetid patterns of Cercomonas and Eocercomonas gen. nov. (Cercomonadida, Cercozoa). Protist 157: 125-158.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2006. Cell evolution and earth history: stasis and revolution. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. (B) 361 (1470), 29 Jun 2006: 969-1006.
Smirnov, A.V., Nassonova, E.S., Chao, E. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2007. Phylogeny, Evolution, and Taxonomy of Vannellid Amoebae. Protist 158, Jul 2007: 295-324.
Cavalier-Smith, T. & von der Heyden, S., 2007. Molecular phylogeny, scale evolution and taxonomy of centrohelid heliozoa. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 44 (3), Sep 2007: 1186-1203.
Cavalier-Smith, T., Chao, E.E., Stechmann, A., Oates, B. & Nikolaev, S., 2008. Planomonadida ord. nov. (Apusozoa): Ultrastructural Affinity with Micronuclearia podoventralis and Deep Divergences within Planomonas gen. nov. Protist 159 (4), 21 Oct 2008: 535-562.
Bass, D., Chao, E.E.-Y., Nikolaev, S., Yabuki, A., Ishida, K.-i., Berney, C., Pakzad, U., Wylezich, C. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2009. Phylogeny of Novel Naked Filose and Reticulose Cercozoa: Granofilosea cl. n. and Proteomyxidea Revised. Protist 160 (1), Feb 2009: 75-109.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2009. Megaphylogeny, Cell Body Plans, Adaptive Zones: Causes and Timing of Eukaryote Basal Radiations. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 56 (1), Jan/Feb 2009: 26-33.
Howe, A.T., Bass, D., Vickerman, K., Chao, E.E. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2009. Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Astounding Genetic Diversity of Glissomonadida ord. nov., The Dominant Gliding Zooflagellates in Soil (Protozoa: Cercozoa). Protist 160 (2), May 2009: 159-189.
Cavalier-Smith, T., Lewis, R., Chao, E.E., Oates, B. & Bass, D., 2009. Helkesimastix marina n. sp. (Cercozoa: Sainouroidea superfam. n.) a Gliding Zooflagellate of Novel Ultrastructure and Unusual Ciliary Behaviour. Protist 160 (3), Aug 2009: 452-479.
Bass, D., Howe, A.T., Mylnikov, A.P., Vickerman, K., Chao, E.E., Edwards-Smallbone, J., Snell, J., Cabral Jr., C. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2009. Phylogeny and classification of Cercomonadida (Protozoa, Cercozoa): Cercomonas, Eocercomonas, Paracercomonas, and Cavernomonas gen. nov. Protist 160 (4), Nov 2009: 483-521.
Fiore-Donno, A.M., Kamono, A., Chao, E.E., Fukui, M. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2010. Invalidation of Hyperamoeba by Transferring its Species to Other Genera of Myxogastria. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 57 (2), Mar-Apr 2010: 189-196.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2010a. Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. Biol. Lett. 6 (3), 23 Jun 2010: 342-345.
Glücksman, E., Snell, E.A., Berney, C., Chao, E.E., Bass, D. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2011. The Novel Marine Gliding Zooflagellate Genus Mantamonas (Mantamonadida ord. n.: Apusozoa). Protist 162 (2), Apr 2011: 207-221.
Howe, A.T., Bass, D., Scoble, J.M., Lewis, R., Vickerman, K., Arndt, H. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2011. Novel Cultured Protists Identify Deep-branching Environmental DNA Clades of Cercozoa: New Genera Tremula, Micrometopion, Minimassisteria, Nudifila, Peregrinia. Protist 162 (2), Apr 2011: 332-372.
Smirnov, A.V., Chao, E., Nassonova, E.S. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2011. A Revised Classification of Naked Lobose Amoebae (Amoebozoa: Lobosa). Protist 162, Oct 2011: 545-570.
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Oates, B., 2012. Ultrastructure of Allapsa vibrans and the Body Plan of Glissomonadida (Cercozoa). Protist 163 (2), Mar 2012: 165-187.
Anderson, O.R. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2012. Ultrastructure of Diplophrys parva, a New Small Freshwater Species, and a Revised Analysis of Labyrinthulea (Heterokonta). Acta Protozool. 51: 291-304.
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Karpov, S.A., 2012. Paracercomonas Kinetid Ultrastructure, Origins of the Body Plan of Cercomonadida, and Cytoskeleton Evolution in Cercozoa. Protist 163 (1), Jan 2012: 47-75.
Yabuki, A., Chao, E.E., Ishida, K.-I. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2012. Microheliella maris (Microhelida ord. n.), an Ultrastructurally Highly Distinctive New Axopodial Protist Species and Genus, and the Unity of Phylum Heliozoa. Protist 163 (3), May 2012: 356-388.
Yabuki, A., Ishida, K.-I. & Cavalier-Smith, T., 2013(2012). Rigifila ramosa n. gen., n. sp., a Filose Apusozoan with a Distinctive Pellicle, is Related to Micronuclearia. Protist 164, Jan 2013: 75-88.
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E.E., 2012. Oxnerella micra sp. n. (Oxnerellidae fam. n.), a Tiny Naked Centrohelid, and the Diversity and Evolution of Heliozoa. Protist 163, Jul 2012: 574–601.
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Scoble, J.M., 2013(2012). Phylogeny of Heterokonta: Incisomonas marina, a uniciliate gliding opalozoan related to Solenicola (Nanomonadea), and evidence that Actinophryida evolved from raphidophytes. Eur. J. Protistol. 49 (3), Aug 2013: 328-353.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2013(2012). Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa. Europ. J. Protistol. 49 (2), May 2013: 115-178.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2014. Gregarine site-heterogeneous 18S rDNA trees, revision of gregarine higher classification, and the evolutionary diversification of Sporozoa. Europ. J. Protistol. 50 (5), Oct 2014: 472-495.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2015. Mixed heterolobosean and novel gregarine lineage genes from culture ATCC50646: Long-branch artefacts, not lateral gene transfer, distort α-tubulin phylogeny. Europ. J. Protistol. 51: 121-137.
Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M.D. & Kirk, P.M., 2015a. A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10 (4), 29 Apr 2015: 1-60.
Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M.D. & Kirk, P.M., 2015b. Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10 (6), 11 Jun 2015: 1-54.
Cavalier-Smith, T., Chao, E.E. & Lewis, R., 2015. Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: New cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 93, Dec 2015: 331-362.
Cavalier-Smith, T., Chao, E.E. & Lewis, R., 2016. 187-gene phylogeny of protozoan phylum Amoebozoa reveals a new class (Cutosea) of deep-branching, ultrastructurally unique, enveloped marine Lobosa and clarifies amoeba evolution. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 99: 275-296.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2016. Higher classification and phylogeny of Euglenozoa. Eur. J. Protistol. 56: 250-276.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2017. Origin of animal multicellularity: precursors, causes, consequences—the choanoflagellate/sponge transition, neurogenesis and the Cambrian explosion. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372 20150476: [1]-15.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2018. Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla. Protoplasma (255): 297-357.
Cavalier-Smith, T., Chao, E.E. & Lewis, R., 2018. Multigene phylogeny and cell evolution of chromist infrakingdom Rhizaria: contrasting cell organisation of sister phyla Cercozoa and Retaria. Protoplasma, 17 Apr 2018: 58 pp..
Cavalier-Smith, T. & Chao, E.E-Y., 2020. Multidomain ribosomal protein trees and the planctobacterial origin of neomura (eukaryotes, archaebacteria). Protoplasma (257): 621-753.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2022(2021). Ciliary transition zone evolution and the root of the eukaryote tree: implications for opisthokont origin and classification of kingdoms Protozoa, Plantae, and Fungi. Protoplasma 259, May 2022: 487-593.


Cavalier-Smith, T., 1983a. Endosymbiotic Origin of the Mitochondrial Envelope. In H.E.A. Schenk & W. Schwemmler (eds.), Endocytobiology II: 265-279.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1983b. A 6-Kingdom Classification and a Unified Phylogeny. In H.E.A. Schenk & W. Schwemmler (eds.), Endocytobiology II: 1027-1034.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1986. The Kingdom Chromista: Origin and Systematics. In F.E. Round & D.J. Chapman (eds.), Progress in Phycological Research 4: 309-347.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1987a. The origin of Fungi and Pseudofungi. In A.D.M. Rayner, C.M. Brasier & D. Moore (eds.), Evolutionary Biology of the Fungi. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 339-353.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1989[1990]. The kingdom Chromista. In J.C. Green, B.S.C. Leadbeater & W.L. Diver (eds.), Syst. Assoc. Spec. Vol. (no. 38), [22 Feb 1990]: 381-407.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 1991[1992]. 8. Cell diversification in heterotrophic flagellates. In D.J. Patterson & J. Larsen (eds.), Syst. Assoc. Spec. Vol. (No. 45), [30 Jan 1992]: 113-131.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2000. Flagellate megaevolution. In B.S.C. Leadbeater & J.C. Green (eds.), The Flagellates. The Systematics Association Special Volume Series 59. Taylor & Francis, London/New York: 361-390.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2001. What are Fungi? In D.J. McLaughlin, E.G. McLaughlin & P.A. Lemke (eds.), VII Systematics and Evolution, Part A. In K. Esser & P.A. Lemke (eds.), The Mycota. Springer-Verlag, Berlin: 3-37.
Cavalier-Smith, T., 2004. Chromalveolate Diversity and Cell Megaevolution. In R.P. Hirt & D.S. Horner (eds.), Organelles, Genomes and Eukaryote Phylogeny. The Systematics Association Special Volume Series (no. 68), 28 Jun 2004: 75-108.


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